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Latin Text, Study Aids with Vocabulary, and Commentary, by Mathew Owen and Ingo Gildenhard

20-23

1 Leave a comment on paragraph 1 0 [20]

2 Leave a comment on paragraph 2 0 1 Exim Claudius Timarchus Cretensis reus agitur, ceteris criminibus ut solent praevalidi provincialium et opibus nimiis ad iniurias minorum elati: una vox eius usque ad contumeliam senatus penetraverat, quod dictitasset in sua potestate situm an pro consulibus qui Cretam obtinuissent grates agerentur.

3 Leave a comment on paragraph 3 0 2 quam occasionem Paetus Thrasea ad bonum publicum vertens, postquam de reo censuerat provincia Creta depellendum, haec addidit:

4 Leave a comment on paragraph 4 1 3 ‘usu probatum est, patres conscripti, leges egregias, exempla honesta apud bonos ex delictis aliorum gigni. sic oratorum licentia Cinciam rogationem, candidatorum ambitus Iulias leges, magistratuum avaritia Calpurnia scita pepererunt; nam culpa quam poena tempore prior, emendari quam peccare posterius est.

5 Leave a comment on paragraph 5 0 4 ergo adversus novam provincialium superbiam dignum fide constantiaque Romana capiamus consilium, quo tutelae sociorum nihil derogetur, nobis opinio decedat, qualis quisque habeatur, alibi quam in civium iudicio esse.

6 Leave a comment on paragraph 6 0 20.1:

7 Leave a comment on paragraph 7 0 What type of genitive is provincialium?

8 Leave a comment on paragraph 8 0 Why is dictitasset in the subjunctive?

9 Leave a comment on paragraph 9 0 Parse grates.

10 Leave a comment on paragraph 10 0 The sentence contrasts (i) ceteris criminibus with una vox and (ii) ad iniuriam minorum with usque ad contumeliam senatus: what do these contrasts tell us about how Tacitus viewed the attitude of the senate towards provincial administration?

11 Leave a comment on paragraph 11 0 20.2:

12 Leave a comment on paragraph 12 0 Explain the syntax of depellendum.

13 Leave a comment on paragraph 13 0 What type of ablative is provincia Creta?

14 Leave a comment on paragraph 14 0 Who is Paetus Thrasea? What do his names mean? Where else in the Annals does Tacitus mention him?

15 Leave a comment on paragraph 15 0 20.3:

16 Leave a comment on paragraph 16 0 What are the legislative measures, which Thrasea refers to with Cincia rogatio, Iuliae leges, and Calpurnia scita? (And what is the difference between rogatio, leges, and scita?)

17 Leave a comment on paragraph 17 0 Analyse the design of nam culpa quam poena tempore prior, emendari quam peccare posterius est.

18 Leave a comment on paragraph 18 0 20.4:

19 Leave a comment on paragraph 19 0 Explain the mood of capiamus.

20 Leave a comment on paragraph 20 0 Stylistic Appreciation: Looking at this chapter and in particular Tacitus’ use of language, consider how he injects a moralising excitement and republican sentiments into his account of the trial of Timarchus.

21 Leave a comment on paragraph 21 0 Discussion Point: What did it take in ancient Rome for a public figure to be counted among ‘the good’ (boni)? What does it take now? Do you agree with Thrasea’s assertion that among good men the delinquencies committed by others will entail excellent laws and precedents of honourable conduct? If so, can you think of examples from recent history as evidence? If not, can you think of counter-examples?

exim then
Cretensis, -e Cretan (from Crete)
reus agor, agi, actus sum I stand trial
praevalidus, -a, -um most powerful
provincialis, -is, m. provincial (resident of one of Rome’s provinces)
minores, -um, m.pl. inferiors, lessers
elatus, -a, -um (here) buoyed up, exalted
contumelia, -ae, f. insult
penetro, -are, -avi, -atum I reach
dictito, -are, -avi, -atum I say frequently
situs, -a, -um located, placed
an whether
proconsul, -ulis, m. proconsul (rank of Roman governor)
Creta, -ae, f. Crete
obtineo, -ere, -ui, -tentum (here) I hold, govern
grates ago, -ere, egi, actum I give thanks
reus, -i, m. defendant
censeo, -ere, -ui, censum I propose
depello, -ere, -puli, -pulsum I banish
usus, -us, m. (here) experience
probo, -are, -avi, -atum I prove (here, impersonal passive)
patres conscripti, m.pl. senators (formal mode of address)
egregius, -a, -um excellent
honestus, -a, -um honourable
delictum, -i, n. misdeed
gigno, -ere, genui, genitum I produce
licentia, -ae, f. corruption
rogatio, -onis, f. legal bill
candidatus, -i, m. electoral candidate
ambitus, -us, m. bribery
magistratus, -us, m. magistrate
avaritia, -ae, f. greed
scitum, -i, n. decree
pario, -ere, peperi, partum I bring about, produce
culpa, -ae, f. wrongdoing
emendo, -are, -avi, -atum I reform (here, pass. infin. = ‘being reformed’)
pecco, -are, -avi, -atum I commit an offence
constantia, -ae, f. steadfastness
tutela, -ae, f. protection
derogo, -are, -avi, -atum I remove, subtract from
opinio, -onis, f. idea
decedo, -ere, -cessi, -cessum (here) I disappear, cease to exist
habeo, -ere, habui, habitum (here) I consider, value
alibi quam anywhere other than
iudicium, -ii, n. judgment

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23 Leave a comment on paragraph 23 0  

24 Leave a comment on paragraph 24 0 [21]

25 Leave a comment on paragraph 25 0 1 Olim quidem non modo praetor aut consul sed privati etiam mittebantur qui provincias viserent et quid de cuiusque obsequio videretur referrent; trepidabantque gentes de aestimatione singulorum: at nunc colimus externos et adulamur, et quo modo ad nutum alicuius grates, ita promptius accusatio decernitur.

26 Leave a comment on paragraph 26 0 2 decernaturque et maneat provincialibus potentiam suam tali modo ostentandi: sed laus falsa et precibus expressa perinde cohibeatur quam malitia, quam crudelitas.

27 Leave a comment on paragraph 27 0 3 plura saepe peccantur, dum demeremur quam dum offendimus. quaedam immo virtutes odio sunt, severitas obstinata, invictus adversum gratiam animus.

28 Leave a comment on paragraph 28 0 4 inde initia magistratuum nostrorum meliora ferme et finis inclinat, dum in modum candidatorum suffragia conquirimus: quae si arceantur, aequabilius atque constantius provinciae regentur. nam ut metu repetundarum infracta avaritia est, ita vetita gratiarum actione ambitio cohibebitur.’

29 Leave a comment on paragraph 29 0 21.1:

30 Leave a comment on paragraph 30 0 privati: to what does this refer?

31 Leave a comment on paragraph 31 0 Explain the mood of viserent and referrent.

32 Leave a comment on paragraph 32 0 Discuss the contrast Thrasea draws between olim and nunc: what has changed?

33 Leave a comment on paragraph 33 0 21.2:

34 Leave a comment on paragraph 34 0 Explain the mood of decernatur, maneat, and cohibeatur.

35 Leave a comment on paragraph 35 0 What type of verb is ostento (whence ostentandi)?

36 Leave a comment on paragraph 36 0 Why does Thrasea regard dishonest praise (laus falsa) as worse than malice (malitia) and cruelty (crudelitas)? Do you agree?

37 Leave a comment on paragraph 37 0 21.3:

38 Leave a comment on paragraph 38 0 Explain the syntax and analyse the design of severitas obstinata, invictus adversum gratiam animus.

39 Leave a comment on paragraph 39 0 21.4:

40 Leave a comment on paragraph 40 0 aequabilius atque constantius: the phrase recalls a passage in Sallust (cited in the commentary). Briefly discuss the effect of this literary echo.

41 Leave a comment on paragraph 41 0 Explain the significance of the moods and tenses of regentur and cohibebitur.

42 Leave a comment on paragraph 42 0 Stylistic Appreciation: Look back over the entirety of Thrasea’s speech (usu … cohibebitur, 20.3 – 21.4). How does Tacitus make this a powerful piece of persuasive oratory?

43 Leave a comment on paragraph 43 0 Discussion Point: Is Thrasea right that some virtues inspire hatred? Can you think of instances when this point has been made, or ought to have been made, to our leaders today? What do you make of Thrasea’s scorn for those who seek popularity ‘like electoral candidates’? What does it tell us about Thrasea? He seems to link the pursuit of popular approval with instability and poor governance: does he have a point? (You could consider this from a modern perspective, or from that of first-century Rome at the head of an empire.)

privatus, -i, m. private citizen
viso, -ere, visi, visum I visit
obsequium, -ii, n. obedience, loyalty
trepido, -are, -avi, -atum (de) I tremble (at)
aestimatio, -onis, f. judgment
singulus, -i, m. individual
colo, -ere, colui, cultum I court, pander to
externus, -i, m. foreigner
adulor, -ari, -atus sum I flatter
nutus, -us, m. nod
grates, -ium f. pl. votes of thanks
ostento, -are, -avi, -atum I demonstrate, show off
prex, precis, f. plea, prayer
exprimo, -ere, -pressi, -pressum I exact, squeeze out
perinde … quam… as much as
cohibeo, -ere, -ui, -itum I restrict
malitia, -ae, f. wickedness, malice
pecco, -are, -avi, -atum I commit an offence, do wrong
demereor, -eri, -itus sum I oblige
immo in fact
severitas, -atis, f. strictness
obstinatus, -a, -um stubborn
gratia, -ae, f. (here) favour
inde in consequence
magistratus, -us, m. magistracy, period of office
ferme (here) usually
inclino, -are, -avi, -atum I go down hill
in modum (+ gen.) like, in the manner of
suffragium, -ii, n. vote
conquiro, -ere, -quisivi, -quisitum I seek after
arceo, -ere, -cui, -ctum I keep at bay
aequabilis, -e consistent
constans, -antis steady
repetundae (sc. pecuniae) money or other things that are to be restored
from repeto ‘I demand back’
infrango, -ere, -fregi, -fractum I crush
avaritia, -ae, f. greed
gratiarum actio, -onis, f. vote of thanks
ambitio, -onis, f. currying of favour

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45 Leave a comment on paragraph 45 0 [22]

46 Leave a comment on paragraph 46 0 1 Magno adsensu celebrata sententia. non tamen senatus consultum perfici potuit, abnuentibus consulibus ea de re relatum. mox auctore principe sanxere ne quis ad concilium sociorum referret agendas apud senatum pro praetoribus prove consulibus grates, neu quis ea legatione fungeretur.

47 Leave a comment on paragraph 47 0 2 isdem consulibus gymnasium ictu fulminis conflagravit effigiesque in eo Neronis ad informe aes liquefacta. et motu terrae celebre Campaniae oppidum Pompei magna ex parte proruit; defunctaque virgo Vestalis Laelia, in cuius locum Cornelia ex familia Cossorum capta est.

48 Leave a comment on paragraph 48 0 22.1:

49 Leave a comment on paragraph 49 0 What construction is abnuentibus consulibus?

50 Leave a comment on paragraph 50 0 With reference to the Introduction, Section 6 (on Thrasea Paetus), consider why the consuls are disinclined to let Thrasea’s proposal be put to the vote.

51 Leave a comment on paragraph 51 0 What was the concilium sociorum?

52 Leave a comment on paragraph 52 0 Why is referret in the subjunctive?

53 Leave a comment on paragraph 53 0 22.2:

54 Leave a comment on paragraph 54 0 isdem consulibus: suggest an idiomatic translation for this phrase.

55 Leave a comment on paragraph 55 0 gymnasium: what is this, and what connotations does such a building have? (You may wish to include consideration of the etymology of gymnasium in your answer.)

56 Leave a comment on paragraph 56 0 Try reading out loud effigiesque in eo Neronis ad informe aes liquefacta. What do you think Tacitus’ tone of voice would be like?

57 Leave a comment on paragraph 57 0 Who were the Cornelii Cossi?

58 Leave a comment on paragraph 58 0 Stylistic Appreciation: How does Tacitus add colour to his account of the end of the year in this little chapter?

59 Leave a comment on paragraph 59 0 Discussion Point: What do you make of the ‘ominous’ destruction of Nero’s Gymnasium and his effigy within? Why does Tacitus include this detail? Does he take this to be a sign of divine judgment? Do you think there is a place for ‘prodigies’ such as this in the writing of history? What are the forces that modern historians appeal to in order to impose meaningful patterns upon (amorphous) historical time?

adsensus, -us, m. agreement
celebro, -are, -avi, -atum (here) I praise
senatus consultum, -i, n. decree of the senate
abnuo, -ere, -nui, -nutum I deny
auctore principe (abl. absol.) ‘on the emperor’s authority’
sancio, -ire, sanxi, sanctum I enact a law (sanxere = sanxerunt)
(sociorum) concilium, -ii, n. (provincial) council
pro praetor, -oris, m. propraetor (rank of provincial governor)
pro consul, -ulis, m. proconsul (rank of provincial governor)
legatio, -onis, f. delegation
fungor, -i, functus sum (+ abl.) I carry out
gymnasium gymnasium
fulmen, -inis, n. lightning
ictus, -us, m. strike
conflagro, -are, -avi, -atum I burst into flames
effigies, -ei, f. statue, effigy
informis, -e shapeless
aes, aeris, n. bronze
liquefacio, -ere, -feci, -factum I melt
motus terrae, motus terrae, m. earthquake
celeber, -bris, -bre populous
Campania, -ae, f. Campania (region of Italy)
Pompei, -orum, m.pl. Pompeii
magna ex parte to a great extent
proruo, -ere, -rui, -rutum I collapse, am demolished
defungor, -i, -functus sum I die
virgo Vestalis, virginis Vestalis, f. Vestal Virgin
Cossi, -orum, m.pl. the Cossi (a Roman family)
capio, -ere, cepi, captum (here) I appoint

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61 Leave a comment on paragraph 61 0 [23]

62 Leave a comment on paragraph 62 0 1 Memmio Regulo et Verginio Rufo consulibus natam sibi ex Poppaea filiam Nero ultra mortale gaudium accepit appellavitque Augustam dato et Poppaeae eodem cognomento. locus puerperio colonia Antium fuit, ubi ipse generatus erat.

63 Leave a comment on paragraph 63 0 2 iam senatus uterum Poppaeae commendaverat dis votaque publice susceperat, quae multiplicata exolutaque. et additae supplicationes templumque fecunditatis et certamen ad exemplar Actiacae religionis decretum, utque Fortunarum effigies aureae in solio Capitolini Iovis locarentur, ludicrum circense, ut Iuliae genti apud Bovillas, ita Claudiae Domitiaeque apud Antium ederetur.

64 Leave a comment on paragraph 64 0 3 quae fluxa fuere, quartum intra mensem defuncta infante. rursusque exortae adulationes censentium honorem divae et pulvinar aedemque et sacerdotem. atque ipse ut laetitiae, ita maeroris immodicus egit.

65 Leave a comment on paragraph 65 0 4 adnotatum est, omni senatu Antium sub recentem partum effuso, Thraseam prohibitum immoto animo praenuntiam imminentis caedis contumeliam excepisse. secutam dehinc vocem Caesaris ferunt qua reconciliatum se Thraseae apud Senecam iactaverit ac Senecam Caesari gratulatum: unde gloria egregiis viris et pericula gliscebant.

66 Leave a comment on paragraph 66 0 23.1:

67 Leave a comment on paragraph 67 0 Who were Memmius Regulus and Verginius Rufus? Discuss the significance of the phrase Memmio Regulo et Verginio Rufo consulibus for the genre in which Tacitus is writing.

68 Leave a comment on paragraph 68 0 dato et Poppaeae eodem cognomento: what construction is this?

69 Leave a comment on paragraph 69 0 23.2:

70 Leave a comment on paragraph 70 0 Parse dis.

71 Leave a comment on paragraph 71 0 Explain what certamen ad exemplar Actiacae religionis refers to.

72 Leave a comment on paragraph 72 0 23.3:

73 Leave a comment on paragraph 73 0 Explain the syntax of quae and of quartum intra mensem defuncta infante.

74 Leave a comment on paragraph 74 0 Parse censentium.

75 Leave a comment on paragraph 75 0 23.4:

76 Leave a comment on paragraph 76 0 State and explain the case of Thraseam.

77 Leave a comment on paragraph 77 0 apud Senecam iactaverit: why do you think Nero would have wanted to tell Seneca in particular of his mercy towards Thrasea?

78 Leave a comment on paragraph 78 0 Comment on Tacitus’ choice of the verb gliscebant here.

79 Leave a comment on paragraph 79 0 Stylistic Appreciation: How in this chapter does Tacitus offer us a disturbing snapshot of the behaviour of the princeps and the senators in the reign of Nero?

80 Leave a comment on paragraph 80 0 Discussion Point: ‘O homines ad servitutem paratos!’ (‘Damn these fellows so ready to be slaves!’): so the emperor Tiberius reproached the senators of his time. Does this chapter suggest a similarly slavish senate? What factors in Rome’s history and constitution led the senators to behave as they do in this chapter? Why is Tacitus so scornful of their conduct? Can you think of modern contexts – in your school, in society at large – where you might be able to observe similar forms of behaviour? What are the causes? What the consequences?

ultra (+ acc.) beyond
appello, -are, -avi, -atum I call
cognomentum, -i, n. name
puerperium, -ii, n. childbirth
Antium, -ii, n. Antium (modern Anzio, Nero’s birthplace)
genero, -are, -avi, -atum I give birth to, produce
uterus, -i, m. womb
commendo, -are, -avi, -atum I entrust to the protection of
votum, -i, n. vow
publice (here) as a community
exsolvo, -ere, -solui, -solutum I discharge (a vow)
supplicatio, -onis, f. day of thanksgiving
fecunditas, -atis, f. fertility
ad exemplar + gen. based on the model of
Actiaca religio, -onis, f. Festival of Actium
decerno, -ere, -crevi, -cretum I decree
solium, -ii, n. throne
Capitolinus Iuppiter, Iovis, m. Capitoline Jupiter (the greatest cult of Jupiter)
ludicrum, -i, n. show, games
circensis, -e of the circus
ut … ita… as… so…
Bovillae, -arum, f.pl. Bovillae (a town near Rome)
edo, -ere, edidi, editum I put on (games)
fluxus, -a, -um transitory, short-lived
defungor, -i, -functus sum I die
adulatio, -onis, f. flattery
censeo, -ere, -ui, censum I propose
pulvinar, -aris, n. ceremonial couch (for the gods)
maeror, -oris, m. grief
immodicus, -a, -um excessive
adnoto, -are, -avi, -atum I observe (here, impersonal passive)
sub (+ acc.) (here) just after
partus, -us, m. birth
prohibeo, -ere, -ui, -itum I forbid
praenuntius, -a, -um (+ gen.) forshadowing
imminens, -entis impending, imminent
contumelia, -ae, f. affront, insult
dehinc then
fero, ferre, tuli, latum (here) I say
reconcilio, -are, -avi, -atum (+ dat.) I reconcile (to)
iacto, -are, -avi, -atum I boast
egregius, -a, -um illustrious
glisco, -ere I grow greater, swell

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