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Latin Text, Study Aids with Vocabulary, and Commentary, by Mathew Owen and Ingo Gildenhard

38-41

1 Leave a comment on paragraph 1 0 [38]

2 Leave a comment on paragraph 2 1 1 Sequitur clades, forte an dolo principis incertum (nam utrumque auctores prodidere), sed omnibus quae huic urbi per violentiam ignium acciderunt gravior atque atrocior.

3 Leave a comment on paragraph 3 0 2 initium in ea parte circi ortum quae Palatino Caelioque montibus contigua est, ubi per tabernas, quibus id mercimonium inerat quo flamma alitur, simul coeptus ignis et statim validus ac vento citus longitudinem circi corripuit. neque enim domus munimentis saeptae vel templa muris cincta aut quid aliud morae interiacebat.

4 Leave a comment on paragraph 4 1 3 impetu pervagatum incendium plana primum, deinde in edita adsurgens et rursus inferiora populando, antiit remedia velocitate mali et obnoxia urbe artis itineribus hucque et illuc flexis atque enormibus vicis, qualis vetus Roma fuit.

5 Leave a comment on paragraph 5 0 4 ad hoc lamenta paventium feminarum, fessa aetate aut rudis pueritiae, quique sibi quique aliis consulebant, dum trahunt invalidos aut opperiuntur, pars mora, pars festinans, cuncta impediebant.

6 Leave a comment on paragraph 6 0 5 et saepe dum in tergum respectant lateribus aut fronte circumveniebantur, vel si in proxima evaserant, illis quoque igni correptis, etiam quae longinqua crediderant in eodem casu reperiebant.

7 Leave a comment on paragraph 7 0 6 postremo, quid vitarent quid peterent ambigui, complere vias, sterni per agros; quidam amissis omnibus fortunis, diurni quoque victus, alii caritate suorum, quos eripere nequiverant, quamvis patente effugio interiere.

8 Leave a comment on paragraph 8 0 7 nec quisquam defendere audebat, crebris multorum minis restinguere prohibentium, et quia alii palam faces iaciebant atque esse sibi auctorem vociferabantur, sive ut raptus licentius exercerent seu iussu.

9 Leave a comment on paragraph 9 0 38.1:

10 Leave a comment on paragraph 10 0 Parse prodidere.

11 Leave a comment on paragraph 11 0 What type of ablative is omnibus?

12 Leave a comment on paragraph 12 0 38.2:

13 Leave a comment on paragraph 13 0 Comment on Tacitus’ selection of the word mercimonium.

14 Leave a comment on paragraph 14 0 State and explain the case of morae.

15 Leave a comment on paragraph 15 0 38.3:

16 Leave a comment on paragraph 16 0 How is Tacitus’ use of verbs in this sentence particularly effective?

17 Leave a comment on paragraph 17 0 38.4:

18 Leave a comment on paragraph 18 0 State and explain the case of rudis pueritiae.

19 Leave a comment on paragraph 19 0 38.5:

20 Leave a comment on paragraph 20 0 Parse circumveniebantur.

21 Leave a comment on paragraph 21 0 38.6:

22 Leave a comment on paragraph 22 0 Explain the mood of vitarent.

23 Leave a comment on paragraph 23 0 38.7:

24 Leave a comment on paragraph 24 0 What type of dative is sibi?

25 Leave a comment on paragraph 25 0 Stylistic Appreciation: How does Tacitus’ language in this chapter make the outbreak of the Great Fire both dramatic and moving?

26 Leave a comment on paragraph 26 0 Discussion Point: Did Nero start the Fire? If not, is Tacitus right to raise the possibility he did? Does he want us to believe that Nero was behind it? Can you think of contemporary examples of ‘insinuation’ (maybe from journalism)?

prodo, -ere, -didi, -ditum (here) I record
circus, -i, m. the Circus Maximus (Rome’s race track)
contiguus, -a, -um adjoining to, next to
mercimonium, -ii, n. wares
alo, -ere, alui, alitum I feed, nourish
citus, -a, -um swift
longitudo, -inis, f. length
corripio, -ere, -ripui, -reptum I seize, tear into
munimentum, -i, n. solid defences
saeptus, -a, -um fenced in
cinctus, -a, -um surrounded
pervagor, -ari, -atus sum I spread over, traverse
plana, -orum, n.pl. the level ground
edita, -orum, n.pl. higher areas
inferiora, -um, n.pl. lower parts
populor, -ari, -atus sum I ravage
anteeo, -ire, -ivi/ -ii, -itum I outstrip
remedium, -ii, n. (here) counter-measures
velocitas, -atis, f. speed
obnoxius, -a, -um vulnerable
artus, -a, -um narrow
enormis, -e irregular
vicus, -i, m. street
lamentum, -i, n. lamentation
paveo, -ere I am frightened
rudis, -e inexperienced, tender
opperior, -iri, oppertus sum I wait for
evado, -ere, -vasi, -vasum I escape
reperio, -ire, repperi, -rtum I find
longinquus, -a, -um remote
casus, -us, m. (here) situation
ambiguus, -a, -um uncertain
compleo, -ere, -plevi, -pletum I fill
sternor, -i, stratus sum I fling myself down
diurus, -a, -um daily
victus, -us, m. food
caritas, -atis, f. love
nequeo, -ere, -ivi, -itum I am unable
quamvis although
pateo, -ere, -ui I lie open
effugium, -ii, n. escape
intereo, -ire, -ii, -itum I die
mina, -ae, f. threat
restinguo, -ere, -stinxi, -stinctum I extinguish
fax, facis, f. torch
auctor, -oris, m. (here) authority
vociferor, -ari, -atus sum I yell
raptus, -us, m. looting
licenter freely
exerceo, -ere, -ui, -itum I carry out

27 Leave a comment on paragraph 27 0 [39]

28 Leave a comment on paragraph 28 0 1 Eo in tempore Nero Antii agens non ante in urbem regressus est quam domui eius, qua Palatium et Maecenatis hortos continuaverat, ignis propinquaret. neque tamen sisti potuit quin et Palatium et domus et cuncta circum haurirentur.

29 Leave a comment on paragraph 29 0 2 sed solacium populo exturbato ac profugo campum Martis ac monumenta Agrippae, hortos quin etiam suos patefecit et subitaria aedificia extruxit quae multitudinem inopem acciperent; subvectaque utensilia ab Ostia et propinquis municipiis pretiumque frumenti minutum usque ad ternos nummos.

30 Leave a comment on paragraph 30 0 3 quae quamquam popularia in inritum cadebant, quia pervaserat rumor ipso tempore flagrantis urbis inisse eum domesticam scaenam et cecinisse Troianum excidium, praesentia mala vetustis cladibus adsimulantem.

31 Leave a comment on paragraph 31 0 39.1:

32 Leave a comment on paragraph 32 0 What is the case of Antii?

33 Leave a comment on paragraph 33 0 To what imperial residence does Tacitus refer here? What is the Palatium?

34 Leave a comment on paragraph 34 0 Parse haurirentur and explain its mood.

35 Leave a comment on paragraph 35 0 39.2:

36 Leave a comment on paragraph 36 0 How does solacium fit into this sentence grammatically?

37 Leave a comment on paragraph 37 0 What is Ostia?

38 Leave a comment on paragraph 38 0 39.3:

39 Leave a comment on paragraph 39 0 State and explain the case of ipso tempore.

40 Leave a comment on paragraph 40 0 Parse adsimulantem. With which word is it agreeing in this sentence?

41 Leave a comment on paragraph 41 0 Stylistic Appreciation: How does this passage present a fascinating account of Nero’s reaction to the Fire?

42 Leave a comment on paragraph 42 0 Discussion Point: What are we to make of Tacitus’ sudden change of tack in his treatment of Nero? Is your picture of the emperor altered by this chapter? ‘Fiddling while Rome burns’ has become proverbial: is it fair that Nero should be best remembered in this context? What elements of Nero’s response to the fire are recognizable from modern disaster relief? Nero’s practical and popular relief measures failed to alter public perception of the emperor: why? Can you think of other historical or modern examples, in which practical relief measures and political campaigning became intertwined?

ago, -ere, egi, actum (here) I stay, spend time
Palatium, -ii, ­n. Palatine Hill
Maecenatis horti, -orum, m.pl. Gardens of Maecenas
continuo, -are, -avi, -atum I connect
propinquo, -are, -avi, -atum I approach
sisto, -ere, stiti, statum I stop
haurio, -ire, hausi, haustum I consume
solacium, -ii, n. consolation, relief
exturbatus, -a, -um driven out
profugus, -a, -um homeless
monumentum, -i, n. public building
quin etiam and even
patefacio, -ere, -feci, -factum I throw open
subitarius, -a, -um makeshift, emergency
inops, -opis destitute
extruo, -ere, -xi, -ctum I put up
subveho, -ere, -vexi, -vectum I carry up
utensilia, -ium, n.pl. provisions
Ostia, -ae, f. Ostia (Rome’s port)
propinquus, -a, -um neighbouring
municipium, -ii, n. town
minuo, -ere, -ui, -utum I reduce
usque ad right down to
terni, -ae, -a three
nummus, -i, m. sesterce (Roman coin)
in inritum to no effect
pervado, -ere, -vasi, -vasum I spread
flagro, -are, -avi, -atum I blaze
domesticus, -a, -um private, domestic
scaena, -ae, f. stage
Troianus, -a, -um of Troy
excidium, -ii, n. destruction
vetustus, -a, -um ancient
adsimulo, -are, -avi, -atum I compare

43 Leave a comment on paragraph 43 0  

44 Leave a comment on paragraph 44 0 [40]

45 Leave a comment on paragraph 45 0 1 Sexto demum die apud imas Esquilias finis incendio factus, prorutis per immensum aedificiis ut continuae violentiae campus et velut vacuum caelum occurreret. necdum positus metus aut redierat plebi spes: rursum grassatus ignis patulis magis urbis locis; eoque strages hominum minor, delubra deum et porticus amoenitati dicatae latius procidere.

46 Leave a comment on paragraph 46 0 2 plusque infamiae id incendium habuit quia praediis Tigellini Aemilianis proruperat videbaturque Nero condendae urbis novae et cognomento suo appellandae gloriam quaerere. quippe in regiones quattuordecim Roma dividitur, quarum quattuor integrae manebant, tres solo tenus deiectae: septem reliquis pauca tectorum vestigia supererant, lacera et semusta.

47 Leave a comment on paragraph 47 0 40.1:

48 Leave a comment on paragraph 48 0 State and explain the case of aedificiis.

49 Leave a comment on paragraph 49 0 Why is violentiae in the dative?

50 Leave a comment on paragraph 50 0 Parse hominum.

51 Leave a comment on paragraph 51 0 40.2:

52 Leave a comment on paragraph 52 0 What type of genitive is infamiae?

53 Leave a comment on paragraph 53 0 State and explain the case of solo.

54 Leave a comment on paragraph 54 0 Parse supererant.

55 Leave a comment on paragraph 55 0 Stylistic Appreciation: Analyse how Tacitus uses language to dramatize the losses in the second fire.

56 Leave a comment on paragraph 56 0 Discussion Point: How do you think Nero’s demolition of buildings to make fire-breaks was received? Considering how Nero was to use the land cleared of houses after the Fire, is it understandable that conspiracy theories arose about his involvement? When have similar theories been popularised in recent times? Is Tacitus right to record this sort of rumour in his Annals?

demum at last
imus, -a, -um foot of
Esquiliae, -arum, f.pl. Esquiline Hill
proruo, -ere, -rui, -rutum I demolish
per immensum ‘over a vast area’
continuus, -a, -um relentless
violentia, -ae, f. violence
velut as it were
occurro, -ere, -curri, -cursum (+ dat.) I block, resist
necdum not yet
pono, -ere, posui, positum (here) I lay aside
grassor, -ari, -atus sum I run riot
patulus, -a, -um spacious, open
strages, -is, f. slaughter, destruction
delubrum, -i, n. temple
porticus, -us, f. colonnade
amoenitas, -atis, f. enjoyment
dicatus, -a, -um (+ dat.) dedicated to
procido, -ere, -cidi, -cisum I fall, am destroyed
infamia, -ae, f. scandal
praedium, -ii, n. estate
Aemilianus, -a, -um Aemilian
prorumpo, -ere, -rupi, -ruptum I break out
condo, -ere, -didi, -ditum I found (a city)
cognomentum, -i, n. name
quippe indeed
regio, -onis, f. district
integer, -ra, -rum undamaged
solum, -i, n. ground
tenus (+ abl.) as far as, down to
vestigium, -ii, n. trace
lacer, -era, -erum mangled
semustus, -a, -um half-burnt

57 Leave a comment on paragraph 57 0  

58 Leave a comment on paragraph 58 0 [41]

59 Leave a comment on paragraph 59 0 1 Domuum et insularum et templorum quae amissa sunt numerum inire haud promptum fuerit: sed vetustissima religione, quod Servius Tullius Lunae et magna ara fanumque quae praesenti Herculi Arcas Evander sacraverat, aedesque Statoris Iovis vota Romulo Numaeque regia et delubrum Vestae cum Penatibus populi Romani exusta; iam opes tot victoriis quaesitae et Graecarum artium decora, exim monumenta ingeniorum antiqua et incorrupta, ut quamvis in tanta resurgentis urbis pulchritudine multa seniores meminerint quae reparari nequibant.

60 Leave a comment on paragraph 60 0 2 fuere qui adnotarent XIIII Kal. Sextiles principium incendii huius ortum, quo et Senones captam urbem inflammaverint. alii eo usque cura progressi sunt ut totidem annos mensesque et dies inter utraque incendia numerent.

61 Leave a comment on paragraph 61 0 41.1:

62 Leave a comment on paragraph 62 0 numerum inire haud promptum fuerit: what do you think this suggests about the number of buildings destroyed?

63 Leave a comment on paragraph 63 0 What kind of ablative is vetustissima religione?

64 Leave a comment on paragraph 64 0 Pick out and briefly comment on the significance of two of the sacred sites mentioned by Tacitus.

65 Leave a comment on paragraph 65 0 41.2:

66 Leave a comment on paragraph 66 0 Explain the mood of adnotarent.

67 Leave a comment on paragraph 67 0 What type of clause is introduced by eo usque … ut…?

68 Leave a comment on paragraph 68 0 Stylistic Appreciation: How does Tacitus’ use of language in this passage invest his account of the fire’s destruction with drama and pathos?

69 Leave a comment on paragraph 69 0 Discussion Point: Why does Tacitus select the monuments and works of art he does for mention in this chapter? What about them contributes to the sense of irreparable loss he is evoking? To what extent is the attitude of the seniores here recognizable? And of those who observed the rather contrived coincidences? Why do you think Tacitus includes this sort of bizarre observation in his history?

insula, -ae, f. block of flats
numerum ineo, -ire, -ii I reach a number, count
promptus, -a, -um easy
vetustus, -a, -um old, ancient
religio, -onis, f. holiness, sanctity
ara, -ae, f. altar
fanum, -i, n. shrine
Hercules, -is, m. Hercules
Arcas, -adis Arcadian (from Arcadia, region of Greece)
sacro, -are, -avi, -atum I consecrate
Stator, -oris, m. ‘the Stayer’ (a title of Jupiter)
voveo, -ere, vovi, votum I vow, devote
Numa, -ae, m. Numa (second king of Rome)
regia, -ae, f. palace
delubrum, -i, n. shrine
Penates, -ium, m.pl. household gods
exuro, -ere, -ussi, -ustum I burn
decus, -oris, n. glory, pride
exim then
monumentum, -i, n. monument
ingenium, -ii, n. (here) man of genius
incorruptus, -a, -um undamaged
quamvis although
pulchritudo, -inis, f. beauty
resurgo, -ere, -surrexi, -surrectum I recover, rise again
seniores, -um, m.pl. older men
memini, -isse I remember
reparo, -are, -avi, -atum I restore
nequeo, -ire, -ivi, -itum I am unable
adnoto, -are, -avi, -atum I notice
principium, -ii, n. beginning
Senones, -um, m.pl. the Senonian Gauls
inflammo, -are, -avi, -atum I set fire to
cura, -ae, f. study
totidem the same number of
numero, -are, -avi, -atum I count

70 Leave a comment on paragraph 70 0  

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